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Seven Things You Should Know Before Embarking On Can You Give A Two Month Old Melatonin | can you give a two month old melatonin

When Sergio Tufik accomplished medical academy in 1972, he affronted his ancestor by announcement that he capital to address himself to accurate assay instead of alive his own hospital, in accordance with his father’s wishes. Later, bootless abstracts on the furnishings of marijuana pushed him into the abstraction of beddy-bye deprivation, which he helped prove has adverse furnishings on beastly health.

Melatonin and Children - can you give a two month old melatonin
Melatonin and Children – can you give a two month old melatonin | can you give a two month old melatonin
4-Month-Old Baby Sleep: 4 Things Parents Can Expect  Fatherly - can you give a two month old melatonin
4-Month-Old Baby Sleep: 4 Things Parents Can Expect Fatherly – can you give a two month old melatonin | can you give a two month old melatonin
Melatonin for Babies: Is It Safe? - can you give a two month old melatonin
Melatonin for Babies: Is It Safe? – can you give a two month old melatonin | can you give a two month old melatonin

In 2009, in one annular of his “Epidemiological Beddy-bye Study” (EPISONO), he activate that 32.9% of the burghal of São Paulo has beddy-bye apnea (also accepted as adverse beddy-bye apnea syndrome), a abiding ache characterized by fractional or absolute cease of the airway several times per night during sleep. In 2018, his accumulation activate that bodies with apnea had in accepted three baby variations—called distinct nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs—in a accurate gene. With this knowledge, it became accessible to ascertain who ability accept this beddy-bye ataxia application DNA testing and activate assay added quickly.

From 2001 to 2013, he accommodating the Centermost for Beddy-bye Studies, one of the Research, Innovation, and Dissemination Centers (RIDC) accurate by FAPESP. Although he retired in 2008 from the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), breadth he accomplished for about 30 years, Tufik continues to arch both the Beddy-bye Institute and one of the best advantageous assay groups in this acreage in the world. With 1,044 entries in the Scopus database, as of the end of January their assignment has been cited 28,666 times.

Imposing, with a strong, abysmal voice, Tufik is about two meters tall, with an able-bodied build. During his undergraduate years at the Academy of Medical Sciences of Santa Casa de São Paulo, he played volleyball, competed in attempt put, and was admiral of Atlética, the medical school’s sports association. He additionally began to exercise his ambitious ancillary during those years by advice and affairs accurate accessories to colleagues who couldn’t apprehend English. He alternate in the conception of the Workers’ Party (PT), served as burghal councilperson in the 1980s, and as if that weren’t enough, he additionally endemic a video assembly aggregation and an internet admission provider, and is a actor in CDB, a analytic assay laboratory.

Tufik was built-in in São Paulo, and has a son who is additionally a doctor. One morning in January he accustomed the Pesquisa FAPESP aggregation to his appointment on the seventh attic of a architecture acceptance to the Assay Incentive Fund Affiliation (AFIP), a clandestine foundation he created during his doctoral studies in the backward 1970s, which houses analytic assay laboratories and the Beddy-bye Institute. The abode is alive about the clock. In the aboriginal evening, bodies activate accession for polysomnography exams—about 100 per shift—which accommodate the foundations for beddy-bye discoveries and for the recommendations Tufik gives on how to beddy-bye better, presented in the afterward interview.

Age 73Field of expertiseSleep medicineInstitutionFederal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP)Educational backgroundUndergraduate amount in anesthetic from the Academy of Medical Sciences of Santa Casa de São Paulo (1972), master’s amount in analysis from the University of São Paulo in Ribeirão Preto (1976), and a PhD in psychopharmacology from UNIFESP (1978)Written works1,357 accurate articles, 3 books as author, and 9 as coauthor

Have you and your aggregation at the Beddy-bye Institute apparent any aftereffect of the communicable on people’s sleep?Social abreast and the home appointment accept afflicted people’s accord with beddy-bye a lot. They aren’t crumbling time on busline anymore, but added worries accept increased. In 2020, my son, Sergio Brasil Tufik, interviewed 1,700 bodies beyond Brazil, from ages 18 to 93. Added than half, 56%, claimed that their beddy-bye had worsened; 39% didn’t apprehension any difference; and 9% saw their beddy-bye improved. Bodies appear their beddy-bye had worsened because of worries, spending added time in advanced of TV or corpuscle buzz screens, and added time at home. There were a lot of complaints, such as demography a connected time to abatement asleep, activity sick, and blockage in bed best than they would like. But this should all acknowledgment to accustomed as the communicable passes.

Do you beddy-bye well?I’m sleeping absolutely well. I usually beddy-bye amid six and seven hours, but in the aftermost anniversary I’ve been sleeping eight, I don’t apperceive why. And I don’t snore, alike admitting I accept the anatomy blazon to snore; I don’t accept any apnea.

Is alive in a burghal like São Paulo bad for sleep?Absolutely. You can’t beddy-bye able-bodied at night if you’re fatigued or scared.

Is melatonin safe for babies? - can you give a two month old melatonin
Is melatonin safe for babies? – can you give a two month old melatonin | can you give a two month old melatonin

For a connected time there wasn’t abundant accuracy about the functions of sleep. And how is it today?There is annihilation we absorb added time on than sleeping—one-third, sometimes bisected of our lives. Until a few decades ago, there was no way to abstraction sleep, because there’s no point in artlessly sitting abutting to accession who is sleeping. Aback polysomnography [an assay that annal variations in breathing, affection rate, academician activity, and added ambit during sleep] became accessible in the 1970s, we began to beam what’s accident with bodies while they sleep. At that time, I was one of the antecedents of beddy-bye assay in Brazil.

How did you start?I came from USP [University of São Paulo] in Ribeirão Preto to do my doctorate at UNIFESP with Elisaldo Carlini [1930–2020]. He had me abstraction the furnishings of marijuana on the accuracy of rodents, a actual adventuresome accountable for the backward 1970s. We were aggravating to ascertain the cellular receptor for marijuana in the brain. We were application Delta-9-THC, one of the compounds in marijuana, which is a hallucinogen. Carlini would bankrupt the mice of food, we would accord them marijuana and they would fight. Afresh he started to bankrupt the animals of sleep, advised them with marijuana, and afresh the animals fought. We had activate an beastly archetypal to abstraction the activity of marijuana. Sleeping as abundant as they wanted, but with marijuana, the animals were catatonic. Afterwards beddy-bye and with marijuana, they fought.

We alternation soccer teams, application melatonin and acute ablaze to abate the aftereffect of time zones

What was the aftereffect of marijuana on the animals’ brains?We didn’t know. We anticipation that beddy-bye denial afflicted academician receptors and marijuana activated them in such a way that the animals got into fights. Afresh we said: “Let’s block the aftereffect of marijuana and apprentice which receptor is involved.” We were absolutely excited. I no best advised the animals with beddy-bye deprivation, but with haloperidol, a dopamine-system acquaintance acclimated for schizophrenic attacks. By blocking dopamine receptors, haloperidol stimulates beef to aftermath added receptors. Afresh I removed the haloperidol, gave them apomorphine and the mice fought. I gave them marijuana, and they went into absolute catatonia. Carlini got absolutely upset; we hadn’t apparent what the receptor was, so he briefly chock-full alive with marijuana and my apriorism went bottomward the tubes. I told him: “I’m activity to abstraction beddy-bye deprivation, because I’ve already apparent that it increases the aftereffect of apomorphine and causes fights.” He got absolutely affronted and replied: “Do what you want!” So I started belief beddy-bye aback in 1976, because marijuana assay didn’t assignment out. And I absolutely got aflame about sleep, because there was about no assay in this field, there weren’t any associations, no congresses, not alike ache classifications. The aboriginal allocation of sleeping disorders was in 1979. I anon fabricated an absorbing discovery, and I was access to a apple assembly of psychiatry in Finland, which had a breadth on sleep. I acquainted great, I wasn’t alike 30 years old yet.

What did you discover?I activate that beddy-bye denial added the acuteness of dopaminergic neurons. With deprivation, aback apomorphine was accustomed the animals fought; afterwards beddy-bye deprivation, they didn’t fight. Beddy-bye afflicted the cachet of the receptor. Beddy-bye denial does abounding things, this was aloof the first. It changes everything, it’s terrible. Afterwards that, I advised the aftereffect on the brain’s serotonin receptors and all the added neurotransmitters. Today I acquaint students: “When a adversity occurs in your life, it may be for the best and commodity bigger will appear along.” It was like that for me. Afterwards the assemblage in Finland, my acceptability grew. We captivated our aboriginal assembly actuality in São Paulo, with the best beddy-bye specialists from the United States, and we formed the Brazilian Beddy-bye Society. And the assay has kept growing. I afresh activate out that our accumulation produces the best beddy-bye assay in the world. I was actual impressed. It’s because I managed to accumulate a absolute dream team, with acceptable leaders. Monica Andersen publishes a lot. Lia Rita Bittencourt, from the analytic section, who is now the administrator of Assay at UNIFESP, additionally produced a lot. And Marco Túlio de Mello has gone to the Federal University of Minas Gerais to assignment with sports medicine, commodity he was already accomplishing here.

Does beddy-bye affect action performance?Completely. Aback the backward 1990s, the Beddy-bye Institute has been advancing paraplegic athletes for the Paralympics and they’ve won in about every sport. Now we’re additionally training soccer teams to abate the aftereffect of time zones. São Paulo had advice from the Beddy-bye Institute to abbreviate the furnishings of the time aberration in the 2005 Club Apple Cup, in Japan, and we won the apple championship. Of advance I’m from São Paulo, and [soccer team] Corinthians additionally apprenticed the Institute, and afresh won the Club Apple Cup in 2012. As of aftermost year, Santos and Palmeiras didn’t appoint us and lost…

How do you acclimate athletes?When we move beyond time zones, we accept to acclimate quickly, contrarily our achievement won’t be at the aforementioned level. Soccer players, for example, charge to be in top anatomy to face the big European clubs. Brazilians access for amateur on added continents like zombies, afresh are appropriate to accomplish at an hour aback their bodies say they should be sleeping. With melatonin and ablaze light, an acute light, we accomplish them bound accord their circadian rhythm—their beddy-bye schedule—with the abode breadth they’re activity to play. If they’re activity from actuality to Japan, we about-face the aeon of ablaze and dark, because it’s day actuality and night there. It takes two weeks for a actuality to acclimate naturally. With melatonin and ablaze light, we do it in two days. Melatonin is a hormone that synchronizes biological rhythms. It’s produced in the pineal gland aback it gets dark. It was said to accept abounding added functions, but that doesn’t assume to be the case. In the old days, aback our activities were adapted abandoned by the sun, the aeon was simple. Aback aurora arrived, melatonin levels would bead and a actuality would deathwatch up. Aback the sun went down, melatonin added and beddy-bye would come. With bogus ablaze we concluded this accustomed aeon because at night bodies are home with the lights on—and application televisions, computers, and corpuscle phones. The balance of ablaze at night messed with beddy-bye and bodies started to accept a lot of insomnia.

Those who accept apnea are added at accident of accepting cardiovascular problems. What appears aboriginal is hypertension

With all the accurate production, how is your accumulation apparent in added countries?There is still bent and envy. A few years ago, I was in a multicenter accumulation to abstraction apnea genetics, SAGIC [the Beddy-bye Apnea Global Interdisciplinary Consortium]. I acquainted abject by the added researchers. I had a actual acceptable idea, to abstraction the extremes. In general, the added ample and earlier the person, the added apnea you see. I anticipation differently, about comparing the atomic accepted situations. I capital to booty a attending at the overweight, old man, afterwards apnea, on the one hand, and on the other, a young, attenuate actuality with apnea. So we could see, for example, what leads a thin, adolescent woman—who would commonly accept beneath apnea than men—to advance apnea, and why the obese, old, male, adverse to what would be expected, doesn’t accept apnea. I anesthetized the abstraction on to the group, and the activity went forward. However, aback the affidavit started to appear out, my name—which should accept appeared aftermost on the account of authors aback I proposed the experiment—was in the middle, in a abode of bottom importance. They said it was the rule, but they absolutely fabricated up a rule. So I larboard the group, but in the end I fabricated the bigger analysis about apnea.

What was that?We followed a accumulation of bodies at EPISONO, in the burghal of São Paulo, and we activate that bodies with apnea, all of them, accept three SNPs in a specific gene. It was difficult to get published, because the associate reviewers who analyzed the accurate commodity didn’t accept the results, but we managed. It came out in 2018 in Beddy-bye Medicine. It’s an important assignment because now we can do abiogenetic testing, see if a actuality has all three SNPs and is added acceptable to advance apnea, and activate antitoxin assay with diet and exercise. The aboriginal affair that apnea causes is cardiovascular problems. Aback I appear this accord amid apnea and affection problems, I was about criticized, but today it’s added than proven. Those who snore and accept apnea are at greater accident of accepting a cardiovascular problem. What appears aboriginal is hypertension, followed by arrhythmia. If a actuality has 60 apneas per hour, breath stops already per minute and puts a ache on the cardiovascular system. We weren’t aboriginal to beam this, but we accept several works in this area.

How has this ability been acclimated to anticipate apnea?It was activated immediately. If a actuality has had apnea for abandoned a abbreviate time, it’s accessible to anticipate the access of hypertension with the use of CPAP [a accessory acclimated aback sleeping, which pumps air to anticipate airway obstruction; the acronym stands for connected absolute airway pressure]. I accustomed a lot of advice from physiologist Eduardo Moacyr Krieger. I was his apprentice at USP in Ribeirão Preto. I fabricated the bigger discoveries about hypertension and apnea there with him. Aback it began actuality acclimated aback in the 1980s, CPAP was a huge device; today it’s a baby box that insufflates air, opens the airways and allows you to breathe commonly during sleep. It ends apnea. There are bodies who acclimate appropriate abroad to CPAP and deathwatch up the abutting day jumping around, happy, because sleeping bigger improves animal performance; it improves everything. But others suffer, they don’t adapt, they appetite to accept surgery; but apnea anaplasty doesn’t work. At EPISONO, application polysomnography exams, we activate that one-third of the citizenry of the burghal of São Paulo had apnea. A accumulation from Harvard University had appear an commodity in the New England Journal of Anesthetic in 1994, advertence that the prevalence of apnea in the citizenry was amid 2% to 4%. Imagine, absolutely wrong. The Harvard advisers didn’t accompany bodies in to do polysomnography and fabricated their abstracts based abandoned on the appraisal of a accumulation of workers who snored. Our abstraction was complimented by everyone.

How has EPISONO progressed?When planning the aboriginal survey, I saw that the antecedent assignment was to booty a snapshot of beddy-bye disturbances. We started in 1986 with a baby cardinal of participants, administering questionnaires to verify the best common problems, afresh we followed this accumulation from decade to decade, added or beneath like the Demographic Census. In the third copy of the study, in 2007, we brought in 1,101 participants amid the ages of 20 and 80 to beddy-bye at the Beddy-bye Institute for a night to abide polysomnography. This accumulation was a adumbrative sample of the burghal of São Paulo. In accession to polysomnography, we calm claret samples and conducted RNA analyses and a alternation of tests and evaluations, which included abundant questionnaires. Nobody had anytime done that. Our drivers would aces bodies up at home and booty them aback in the morning. This is how I approved that 33% of the citizenry of the burghal of São Paulo has apnea. The boilerplate is 40% in men and 26% in women. The botheration increases with age. It starts with a abundance of 7% in the 20–29 age group. Amid women, it appears later, about age 50, afterwards menopause, because changeable hormones assure them from apnea. By their afterwards years, the abundance for women is according to the men’s. Afterwards age 70, 80% of men and women accept apnea.

We apparent 33% of the burghal of São Paulo has apnea. The boilerplate is 40% in men and 26% in women

Is apnea the bigger beddy-bye problem?The two bigger are beddy-bye apnea and insomnia, with abundant added indisposition in women and added beddy-bye apnea in men. Apnea is worse, because the actuality stops breath and loses sleep, but not in insomnia, abandoned beddy-bye is lost. But complaints about the three types of insomnia, namely, adversity initiating beddy-bye or advancement beddy-bye and aboriginal awakening, were additionally high, extensive 30%. Attending how it’s developed over the aftermost three decades [pointing to graphs on a big awning on the bank abutting to his desk], because of added violence, stress, and traffic.

Do physicians in added specialties acknowledge able-bodied to studies on the furnishings of beddy-bye deprivation? One abstraction years ago from your accumulation showed the arrest of beddy-bye disorders on metabolism. Do endocrinologists today admit beddy-bye as a problem?Endocrinologists and immunologists were easier to convince, with studies, which aloof accumulate advancing out. The cardiologists took the longest, but at the best contempo beddy-bye congresses I fabricated a presentation aloof for them, and it abounding up. And they’ve started allurement for polysomnography exams. Instead of alleviative hypertension, which is the analytic manifestation, they amusement apnea, which is the cause. The botheration is that the clandestine bloom allowance arrangement pays for polysomnography, but not for the CPAP device, which is the treatment. Polysomnography is an big-ticket test. In accession to the equipment, there are the accommodation fees, because bodies absorb the night here. Aback José Serra was Minister of Bloom [1998 to 2002], we were able to accommodate assay for apnea in the SUS [Unified Bloom System] coverage. I alike complete a architecture to serve SUS patients abutting door, but afterwards chock-full application it. At the time, SUS paid aloof over R$100, which was already low, and they didn’t acclimatize it over the afterward years. You can’t do a polysomnography for R$100. Actuality we try to do them from amid R$500 and R$700. The Hospital das Clínicas at USP still does them [at the aboriginal rate]. And SUS additionally doesn’t accommodate CPAP.

Sleep disorders are a accessible bloom problem, aren’t they?Apnea abandoned affects 33% of the population. That’s millions of people. The added problems are rarer. For example, narcolepsy [a ataxia apparent by abrupt attacks of sleep, alike afterwards a acceptable night’s rest] affects beneath than 1% of people, but it’s austere because the alone may be alive and aback abatement asleep, or could be in the boilerplate of chat and go in and out of beddy-bye from one moment to the next. It’s accessible to amusement with medication. Luiz Roberto Barradas Barata [1953–2010] was the São Paulo Accompaniment Secretary of Bloom [from 2003 to 2010], and at that time he was allowance to anatomy a accessible action to amusement beddy-bye disorders. We capital to amusement at atomic the astringent cases of apnea, but he died aback of a affection attack, and the activity didn’t advance any further.

How do doctors about apprentice about beddy-bye disorders?UNIFESP created a abstracted discipline, Biology and Beddy-bye Medicine, but best medical schools amusement these disorders aural pulmonology or neurology. Neuro dominates the polysomnography, while pulmonology focuses on apnea. Beddy-bye Anesthetic still isn’t able-bodied accustomed in the Brazilian medical curriculum, but at atomic aural these disciplines, beddy-bye is talked about. There is already a medical address in the field, the abutting footfall is for it to become a specialty, but it takes time. We accept to alternation people. I’ve accomplished a lot of people, about 3,000 doctors, who opened beddy-bye laboratories all over the country.

Who were you aggressive by?In Ribeirão Preto, the neurophysiologist Miguel Covian [1913–1992] and Krieger. Covian was my master’s advisor. I abstruse from him how to do science. He was a philosopher, a actuality from accession planet. At night, we would get calm aloof to allocution about philosophy, to reflect on the Universe. Krieger is added entrepreneurial. Carlini, actuality at UNIFESP, was cool daring. We were consistently actual alive politically. I alternate in the conception of the PT [Worker’s Party] and was a burghal councilor. Afresh I absolved abroad from it. I acclimated to accomplish all the PT’s videos because I had a blur assembly company.

To beddy-bye well, you accept to abate stress. You don’t accept to ache so abundant from life’s problems

Where does the name Tufik appear from?It’s my Lebanese grandfather’s name. Our ancestors names are all wrong. My great-grandfather’s name was José Kalil Sawaya. He alleged my grandfathering Tufik José Kalil, application his own name as a surname. Afresh my grandfathering acclimated his name as my father’s surname, Brasil Tufik. All the Lebanese do this in Brazil, I don’t apperceive why. We’ve connected on with Tufik, which isn’t absolutely a aftermost name, it’s a aboriginal name.

The ambitious gene charge appear from your family.It comes from the Lebanese. My ancestor was an entrepreneur. He started with a store, afresh he opened a bar and formed in construction. He wasn’t an engineer, but he advised the affairs himself. Aback I accelerating from medicine, he capital to accessible a hospital for me. I said I capital to do science and he got absolutely angry. He said I would be a “barnabas,” which at that time was what you alleged a civilian assistant who didn’t absolutely work, but afterwards he saw that I started accomplishing added things as well.

You already said that you created AFIP because you didn’t appetite to be a beggar scientist.In the past, UNIFESP advisers had allotment problems. At FAPESP they said: “You’re federal, attending to the CNPq [National Council for Accurate and Technological Development] or CAPES [Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel].” Aback I accustomed at CAPES and CNPq, they said the exact opposite: “But you’re from São Paulo, go to FAPESP.” So in 1976, I was 28 years old and still a doctoral apprentice aback I accustomed this botheration and thought: “I’m activity to alpha a nonprofit alignment to accompany in money for research.” We started accomplishing clandestine polysomnography exams. The aboriginal affair I did was to accord a bacon accession to the lab technicians so that they would break afterwards 5 p.m. and we wouldn’t absence out on any experiments. We would set up a lab to do assay and afterwards dismantled it. I thought: “I’m activity to stop this; I can’t angle to accumulate accomplishing it this way anymore. I’ll leave it working, get a few jobs and aback a abstraction comes in, we’ll do it.” I created AFIP, a clandestine foundation affiliated to UNIFESP. Today AFIP has 50 laboratories and performs six actor tests per month, mostly for SUS. We do one to two actor tests per ages for the burghal of São Paulo and from two to three actor for the state. I accept 3,600 employees. What was declared to aloof accommodate a little advice has developed and is now in nine states. With the money that comes in, I pay advisers to assignment in the Department of Psychobiology at UNIFESP and accord amplitude and supplies. The Beddy-bye Institute and this architecture are endemic by AFIP.

Even with the allotment problems at UNIFESP, you got approval and accommodating the Beddy-bye Studies Centermost for ten years, accurate by FAPESP.Yes, and it was actual productive. I don’t apperceive why they didn’t renew for accession ten years, I was absolutely upset, because aggregate was activity well. The centermost was breadth Marco Túlio de Mello apparent that 48% of able drivers, from a sample of 400, were still annoyed and asleep aback it was time to drive again, which added the accident of accidents. Based on this data, we were able to change busline legislation, which now includes an appraisal of beddy-bye disorders amid the belief for accepting a able driver’s license. Afterwards evaluating about 8,000 people, we additionally empiric that bodies who assignment night accouterment acquired bristles to six kilograms during their aboriginal year and 0.8 to 1.2 kg per year afterwards that. They eat added high-calorie aliment because they’re awake, aback they should be bistro abandoned lighter foods, in accession to exercising.

One actual applied question: how can we beddy-bye better?You accept to accept your body. If you’re overweight, you accept to lose weight. If you don’t exercise, you charge to— those things no one brand to apprehend aback they go to the doctor. You additionally accept to dim the ablaze at night for your melatonin akin to alpha ascent so you’ll sleep. Mainly, you accept to abate stress. You don’t accept to ache so abundant from life’s problems. If you’re too on edge, you’ll abrasion yourself out or advance added people, and afresh the problems will abandoned increase. You accept to focus on the botheration and break it if possible. If you can’t, it’s best to balloon about it. Otherwise, beddy-bye will absolutely carelessness you.

Read the Pesquisa FAPESP accessories about beddy-bye research

Seven Things You Should Know Before Embarking On Can You Give A Two Month Old Melatonin | can you give a two month old melatonin – can you give a two month old melatonin
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