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Oil Viscosity - How It's Measured and Reported

Ten Ways How To Measure Viscosity Of Oil Can Improve Your Business | how to measure viscosity of oil

Purpose: The purpose of my activity is to prove that as temperature increases, bendability and apparent astriction both decrease, and to actuate the accord amid bendability and apparent astriction with a connected temperature.

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Procedure: 1). Apparent tension: Put several identical bottle cups on the table. Pour 0.2L baptize in anniversary cup with altered temperatures. Put a baby allotment of identical cardboard on the baptize of anniversary cup. Put cardboard clips on the cardboard in anniversary cup. Admeasurement the temperature of anniversary cup back the cardboard clips alpha to abatement down. Repeat the aforementioned procedures for vinegar, Coke® and milk. 2). Viscosity: Abscess water. Admeasurement 0.2L of baptize eight times. Put 0.2L of baptize into 8 identical bottle cups. Put six of the bottle cups into the refrigerator. Anniversary cup of baptize will abide in the refrigerator for altered periods of time. Put the blow two cups on the adverse for altered periods of time. Pour the baptize through the carry while barometer time application a stop watch for all 0.2L baptize to canyon through the funnel. Repeat the aforementioned accomplish on altered liquids: Coke®, milk, and vinegar.

Conclusion: In conclusion, my antecedent is that as temperature increases, bendability and apparent astriction both decrease. Back bendability and apparent astriction are both backdrop of liquids, there is a accord amid them that apparent astriction varies anon as bendability at a connected temperature. My antecedent is correct. However, there are beginning errors and statistical errors in the project.

The purpose of my science fair activity is to prove that as temperature increases, bendability and apparent astriction both decrease, and to actuate the accord amid bendability and apparent astriction with a connected temperature.

A baby insect comatose on the apparent of a pond or a basin is a accepted afterimage in the summertime. The insect creates tiny dimples in the water’s surface, about as if it were abutment by a attenuate breadth of rubber. In fact, the apparent of baptize and added fluids behaves in abounding respects as if were an adaptable membrane. This aftereffect is accepted as apparent astriction (Moore, 1962) The acumen basic the apparent tension, according to the approach of Brown et al, is that, “A atom abysmal aural a aqueous exerts adorable armament in all direction, due to the molecules that beleaguer it on all sides. The net force on such a atom is zero. As a atom nears the surface, however, it adventures a net force abroad from the surface, back there are no aqueous molecules on the added ancillary of the apparent to allure it in that direction. It follows that assignment charge be done on atom to move it from aural a aqueous to the surface, and that the activity of a aqueous is added for every atom on its surface.” (Brown, Lemay, &Bursten, 2006) From an activity standpoint, in adjustment to extend the breadth of an interface to accompany molecules from the autogenous into the surface, assignment charge be done adjoin the adamant force in the liquid. The backbone of apparent astriction depends on intermolecular forces. As temperature increases, molecules of aqueous become added alive and they move added rapidly; therefore, the intermolecular armament are added instable. Apparent astriction decreases with accretion temperature.

Afluid abounding accomplished a anchored apparent adventures a force opposing a flow. This addiction to abide breeze is referred to as the bendability of a fluid. Fluids like air accept low viscosities, thicker fluids like baptize are added viscous, and fluids like honey and motor oil are characterized by aerial viscosity. Bendability describes a fluid’s centralized attrition to breeze and may be anticipation of a admeasurement of aqueous friction. The greater a liquid’s viscosity, the added boring it flows. Bendability can be abstinent by timing how continued it takes a assertive bulk of the aqueous to breeze through a attenuate tube beneath gravitational force. Added adhesive liquids booty longer. Bendability can additionally be bent by barometer the bulk at which animate spheres abatement through the liquid. The spheres abatement added boring as the bendability increases. Bendability is accompanying to the affluence with which alone molecules of the aqueous can move with account to one another. It appropriately depends on the adorable armament amid molecules and on whether structural appearance abide that account the molecules to become entangled. As temperature increases, the boilerplate alive activity of the molecules is greater; it is added calmly overcomes the adorable armament amid molecules. Therefore, bendability decreases with accretion temperature (Physics Hypertextbook, n. d.).

My hypothesis, for my science fair project, is that as temperature increases, bendability and apparent astriction both decrease. Back bendability and apparent astriction are both backdrop of liquid, there is a accord amid them that apparent astriction varies anon as bendability with temperature actuality constant.

1.  Water

                 Water Apparent Tension

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Cardboard Clips blockage on 0.2L baptize aloft the paper(g)

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Cardboard Clips blockage on 0.2L baptize aloft the paper(g)

7.41

9.81

52.9

3.06

12.1

8.50

57.2

2.72

14.7

7.82

66.0

2.04

16.9

7.14

74.2

1.70

26.2

5.10

82.3

1.70

27.4

5.10

85.1

1.36

34.2

3.40

87.7

1.36

51.1

2.38

92.5

1.02

                        Water Viscosity

Temperature(℃)

Time of abounding 0.2L baptize through the funnel

Temperature(℃)

Time of abounding 0.2L baptize through the funnel

2.5

9.9 sec

45.5

7.4 sec

13

8.9 sec

57

7.2 sec

15.5

8.4 sec

80

6.7 sec

36.5

7.9 sec

Oil Viscosity – How It’s Measured and Reported – how to measure viscosity of oil | how to measure viscosity of oil

91

6.2 sec

40

7.5 sec

97

5.9 sec

Using the blueprint of baptize apparent astriction from Page 6 to acting in the blueprint of baptize viscosity, we access at this equation:

            Viscosity=0.2995(Surface Tension-16.966) 11.251

2.     Coke®

                          Coke® Apparent Tension

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Cardboard Clips blockage on 0.2L coke aloft the paper(g)

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Cardboard Clips blockage on 0.2L coke aloft the paper(g)

1.92

11.9

40.4

4.08

4.82

9.86

53.8

4.08

10.7

9.18

67.2

2.72

23.8

5.44

87.4

2.04

37.7

3.74

90.5

1.36

                         Coke® Viscosity

Temperature(℃)

Time of abounding 0.2L coke through the funnel

Temperature(℃)

Time of abounding 0.2L coke through the funnel

2

9.5sec

50

7.9 sec

16

8.7 sec

52

7.7 sec

29

8.1 sec

70

7.5 sec

37

7.9 sec

102

7.1 sec

Using the blueprint of Coke® apparent astriction from Page 8 to acting in the blueprint of Coke ® viscosity, we access at this equation:

             Viscosity=0.217(Surface Tenson-14.271) 10.067

 

3.     Vinegar

                     Vinegar Apparent Tension

Mass of Cardboard Clips blockage on 0.2L alkali aloft the paper(g)

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Cardboard Clips blockage on 0.2L alkali aloft the paper(g)

1.06

12.24

34.3

4.08

3.78

9.86

42.1

3.06

8.57

7.82

56.8

2.04

19.1

5.1

63.3

1.7

23.6

5.1

81.5

1.02

                            Vinegar Viscosity

Temperature(℃)

Time of abounding 0.2L alkali through the funnel

Temperature(℃)

Time of abounding 0.2L alkali through the funnel

4

10.3sec

58

7.9sec

16

9.1sec

74

7.3sec

31

8.4sec

87

6.9sec

35

8.2sec

103

6.5sec

Using the blueprint of alkali apparent astriction from Page 10 to acting in the blueprint of alkali viscosity, we access at this equation:

              Viscosity=0.3551(Surface Tenson-13.031) 11.377

4.     Milk

                    Milk Apparent Tension

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Cardboard Clips blockage on 0.2L milk aloft the paper(g)

Temperature (℃)

Mass of Cardboard Clips blockage on 0.2L milk aloft the paper(g)

0.53

13.26

39.7

4.42

5.37

9.52

47.1

3.06

9.54

8.16

67.4

2.72

16.8

6.46

85.1

3.06

20.5

6.12

92.7

2.04

                               Milk Viscosity

Temperature(℃)

Time of abounding 0.2L milk through the funnel

Temperature(℃)

Time of abounding 0.2L milk through the funnel

2

9.7sec

54.5

8.1sec

7

9.2sec

64

7.7sec

17

8.9sec

89

7.4sec

30

8.5sec

102

7.1sec

Using the blueprint of milk apparent astriction from Page 12 to acting in the blueprint of milk viscosity, we access at this equation:

              Viscosity= 0.2848(Surface Tenson-12.561) 10.407

This blueprint summarizes all the antecedent relationships amid Apparent Astriction and Temperature for all liquids.

This blueprint summarizes all the antecedent relationships amid Bendability and Temperature for all liquids.

*I artlessly larboard the assemblage of Apparent astriction as grams as it was abstinent in the experiments.

This blueprint summarizes all the antecedent accord amid Apparent Astriction and Viscosityfor all liquids.

Surface Tension

Water apparent tension= -3.547ln (T) 16.966

Coke apparent tension= -2.737ln (T) 14.271

Vinegar apparent tension= -2.653ln (T) 13.031

Milk apparent tension= -2.237ln (T) 12.561

Viscosity

Water viscosity= -1.1048ln (T) 11.251

Coke viscosity= -0.594ln (T) 10.067

Vinegar viscosity= -0.942ln (T) 11.377

Milk viscosity= -0.637ln (T) 10.407

From 0°C to 100°C      Y: viscosity    X: apparent tension

(Following is a abundant assay of the acceptation of what anniversary blueprint shows.)

According to the graphs, apparent astriction and bendability both abatement as the temperature increases. Because as the temperature increases, aqueous particles move added rapidly, the particles accretion activity from calefaction by ascent temperatures and catechumen calefaction into alive energy. Also, because of the ascribe of alien energy, actinic bonds in liquids are broken; therefore, it is easier for aqueous particles to move.

When I attending at the blueprint summarizing the accord amid Temperature and Apparent Astriction for all liquids, I acquisition out that baptize supports the best mass, afresh coke supports the additional best mass, afresh milk supports the third best mass, and alkali supports the atomic accumulation at lower temperatures. Because of able hydrogen bonds, baptize supports the best mass. Coke is mostly fabricated up of carbonated water, sugar, caffeine, phosphoric acid, caramel, and accustomed flavorings. Therefore, there are dipole-dipole armament that are an adorable force amid the absolute end of one arctic atom and the abrogating end of addition arctic atom and ion- dipole armament that are an adorable force that after-effects from the electrostatic allure amid an ion and a aloof atom that has a dipole. However, because the solubility of CO2 decreases with the accretion temperature, Coke® would accept a stronger dipole-dipole force at lower temperatures than that at college temperatures. Milk contains cogent amounts of saturated fats and proteins. Because fat is arctic molecule, there are dipole-dipole armament in milk. Also, milk is a colloid which contains big particles. Therefore, milk supports the third best mass. Alkali alone has dipole-dipole armament and London burning forces; therefore, it supports the atomic mass. But at college temperatures, milk supports the best mass, Coke® supports the additional best mass, afresh alkali supports the third best mass, and baptize supports the atomic mass. Milk forms a film on the apparent at college temperatures, because milk contains proteins, and the proteins would denaturize with the accretion temperature. This is the acumen that milk supports the best accumulation at college temperatures. Alike though, particles in the alkali move added rapidly with accretion temperature, there are still dipole-dipole armament in the vinegar. However, best of the hydrogen bonds in the baptize are burst at college temperatures; therefore, baptize supports the atomic accumulation at college temperatures.

Milk is a colloid which agency molecules in the milk are big particles. Therefore, the bendability is big. According to the blueprint summarizing the accord amid Temperature and Bendability for all liquids, the ambit of milk is the atomic steep. It reveals that the bendability of milk does not change a lot with accretion temperatures because of its nature—colloid. As the temperature increases, the baptize molecules move added rapidly; therefore, the hydrogen bonds are actuality broken. As is apparent on the graph, baptize has a aerial bendability at lower temperatures but low bendability at college temperatures, because particles accretion activity anatomy calefaction by ascent temperatures and become added active. Alike admitting the dipole-dipole armament of alkali abatement with accretion temperatures, the ambit of alkali is beneath abrupt than the ambit of water, because the body of alkali is beyond than that of water. The body of alkali is 1.04 g/cm3, and the body of baptize is 1 g/cm3.

When I attending at the arbitrary graphs, Coke® acts added abnormally from the added three liquids because of the CO2. The solubility of CO2 decreases with the accretion temperature. At lower temperatures, CO2 dissolves in the baptize and reacts with the baptize to anatomy H2CO3 (Carbonic acid); however, the bulk of H2CO3 formed is slight. Best of the CO2 dissolves in the baptize instead of reacting with the water. The attenuated CO2 is absorbed to H2O by hydrogen bonds. It explains the acumen that Coke® supports the additional best accumulation at lower temperatures. At college temperatures, Coke® still supports the additional best mass. Because alike admitting CO2 comes out of band-aid from Coke® with accretion temperature, there are still dipole-dipole armament and ion-dipole forces. Because there are not abounding hydrogen bonds created by CO2 and H2O in Coke®, the aftereffect of the dematerialization of hydrogen bonds is not significant. The acumen Coke® acts abnormally from the added three liquids is due to the complication of coke and the attendance CO2.

By graphing the accord amid Temperature and Apparent Astriction and the accord amid Temperature and Viscosity, I access the best-fit trend band that shows anniversary liquid’s algebraic accord amid Temperature and Apparent astriction and Temperature and Abounding time, and afresh I use the best-fit trend band equations to account the equations of anniversary liquid’s apparent astriction and viscosity. As the apparent astriction increases, the bendability increases, because at college temperatures the apparent astriction is low, and also, at college temperatures the bendability is low. It is based on the abstraction that particles in aqueous accretion activity from calefaction by ascent temperatures and catechumen the activity into alive energy. Back the particles accept added alive energy, they move added rapidly, which weakens the intermolecular force attractions in liquids.

In conclusion, the purpose of my science fair activity is to prove that as temperature increases, bendability and apparent astriction both decrease, and to actuate the accord amid bendability and apparent astriction at a connected temperature. My hypothesis, for my science fair project, is that as temperature increases, bendability and apparent astriction both decrease. Back bendability and apparent astriction are both backdrop of liquids, there is a accord amid them that apparent astriction varies anon as bendability at a connected temperature. My antecedent was apparent to be correct.

However, there are beginning errors and statistical errors in the project. Temperatures I abstinent are not authentic because the calefaction transfers to the surroundings; however, I cannot accumulate the temperature connected because of the limitation of equipments. Also, there are added baby beginning errors, such as the barometer time and slight bulk of aqueous that attaches to the walls of bottle cups and of the funnel. I account the equations of Apparent astriction vs. Bendability for Coke®, water, milk, and alkali based on the best-fit trend band that I acquisition on the Excel; therefore, there are statistical errors in the equations. However, because of my bound ability on the statistics, I do not apperceive how to account the statistical errors. If I can acquisition the uncertainty, I will get added authentic and clearer accord of anniversary liquid’s Apparent Astriction vs. Bendability curve. I infer that the arrangement of the curves of anniversary liquid’s Apparent Astriction vs. Bendability may depend on the densities of anniversary liquid.

Further Research:

If I were to do the activity again, in my opinion, it would not change. The abstracts ability be hardly altered because of beginning and statistical errors. I anticipate the beeline accord amid Apparent Astriction and Bendability for all four liquids can be absolute by accomplishing the activity again.

I would like to analysis the accord amid apparent breadth and apparent tension. Also, I appetite to aggrandize my analysis to abstraction the accord amid density, bendability and apparent astriction at a connected temperature. Then, I would like to assemble a accepted mathematic blueprint for these three aqueous backdrop for every aqueous for a accustomed temperature. As a result, alive two of these three aqueous properties, we can acquisition out the added property, and we can amount out what the temperature is at that time.

Brown, T.L., Lemay, H. E., Jr., & Bursten, B. E. (2006). Chemistry: The axial Science. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Khemani, H. (n.d.). Aftereffect of Temperature on the bendability of the fluid. Retrieved Nov 12th, 2010, from http://www.brighthub.com/engineering/mechanical/articles/10873.aspx

Moore, W. J. (1962). Physical Chemistry. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Ophardt, C.E. (n. d.). Hydrogen bonding. Retrieved Nov 12th, 2010, from http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/ 161Ahydrogenbond.html

Packard, K. A., Jacobs, D. H., & Marshall, R. H. (2007). Chemistry. Shoreview, Minnesota: Pearson AGS Globe.

Physics Hypertextbook. (n. d.) Viscosity. Retrieved Nov 12th, 2010, from http://physics.info/viscosity/

Schlumberger Excellence in Educational Development. (n. d.) Bendability of liquids. Retrieved Nov 12th, 2010, from http://www.seed.slb.com/labcontent.aspx?id=9488

Walker, J. S. (2007). Physics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Xu, Z. W. (n. d.). Apparent Tension. Retrieved Nov 12th, 2010, from http://360edu.com/zhuanti/gao2/wu/59.html

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